Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Kallstroemia maxima



This species is usually known as:

Kallstroemia maxima


This species has also been known as:

Kallstroemia canescens, Tribulus maximus, Tribulus trijugatus, Tribulus tuberculatus


Common names:

Big Caltrop



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Kallstroemia maxima: 10]



Popularity of Kallstroemia maxima over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Kallstroemia maxima (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Kallstroemia maxima as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 20]


13C NMF (1), 1H NMR (1), Balanites (1), chemical analysis (1), cladistic analysis (1), Kallstroemia (1), Krameriaceae (1), Nicaragua (1), Nitrariaceae (1), NMR (1), partial RDA (1), Peganaceae (1), rbcL (1), review (1), sapogenins (1), steroidal sapogenins (1), steroidal saponins (1), structure elucidation (1), systematics (1), weed communities (1)


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


green manure (73.05), weed (14.59), shade (5.40), timber (0.85), fruit (0.67), poison (0.67), medicinal (0.52), ornamental (0.43), starch (0.30), cereal (0.22)…..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Soelberg J, Davis O and Jäger AK (2016) Historical versus contemporary medicinal plant uses in the US Virgin Islands. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 192, 74-89.

Villaseñor JL (2016) Checklist of the native vascular plants of Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Biodiversidad 87, 559-902.

Burrows GE and Tyrl RJ (2012) Zygophyllaceae R.Br. In Toxic Plants of North America (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 1221-1233. (Wiley-Blackwell).



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Kallstroemia maxima: 10; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Punt W, Hoen PP, Blackmore S, Nilsson S and Le Thomas A (2007) Glossary of pollen and spore terminology. Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 143, 1-81.

Aguilar V, Staver C and Milberg P (2003) Weed vegetation response to chemical and manual selective ground cover management in a shaded coffee plantation. Weed Research 43, 68-75.

Sheahan MC and Chase MW (1996) A phylogenetic analysis of Zygophyllaceae R.Br. based on morphological, anatomical and rbcL DNA sequence data. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 122, 279-300.

Agrawal PK, Jain DC and Pathak AK (1995) NMR spectroscopy of steroidal sapogenins and steroidal saponins: An update. Magnetic Resonance in Chemistry 33, 923-953.

Dominguez X, Watson W, Garcia S and Davila I (1985) 25S-Spirost-4-ene-3, 12-dione, A New Sapogenin from Kallstroemia maxima. Planta Med 51, 534-5.

Dominguez XA, Watson WH, Garcia S and Martinez Davila IA (1985) 25S-spirost-4-ene-3, 12-dione, a new sapogenin from Kallstroemia maxima. Planta medica = journal of medicinal plant research. 6, 6.

Krenzer EG, Jr., Moss DN and Crookston RK (1975) Carbon Dioxide Compensation Points of Flowering Plants. Plant Physiology 56, 194-206.

Kellman MC and Adams CD (1970) MILPA WEEDS OF THE CAYO DISTRICT, BELIZE (BRITISH HONDURAS)*. Canadian Geographer / Le Géographe canadien 14, 323-343.

Hooper PA and Leonard BE (1965) Pharmacological properties of some West Indian medicinal plants. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology 17, 98-107.

Myers JG (1932) BIOLOGICAL OBSERVATIONS ON SOME NEOTROPICAL PARASITIC HYMENOPTERA. Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society of London 80, 121-136.


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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct; Wiley Online Library; High Wire; Oxford Journals; USDA National Agricultural Library; for synonyms: The Plant List; for common names:; etc.

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Latest update March 2017 by: ANCW