Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Kickxia elatine



This species is usually known as:

Kickxia elatine, Kickxia elatine subsp. crinita


This species has also been known as:

Kickxia elatine subsp. elatine


Common names:

Sharpleaf Cancerwort, Sharp-Leaved Fluellin



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Kickxia elatine: 53]



Popularity of Kickxia elatine over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Kickxia elatine (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Kickxia elatine as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 185]


13C NMR. (1), Weeds (7), Biodiversity (3), agroecology (2), conservation (2), Field margin (2), Floristics (2), host range (2), iridoid glycosides (2), Junonia (2), kickxia elatine (2), Plantago lanceolata (2), 6′-O-p-hydroxybenzoylantirrinoside (1), 6-acetylantirrinoside (1), Agricultural ecosystems (1), Agricultural policies (1), agri-environment scheme (1), alien (1), Alien plants (1), Alien species (1), alluvial river (1), altitude (1), Anisantha sterilis (1), Antibacterial activity (1), Ants (1), Arable farming systems (1), Arable flora (1), Archaeological site (1), archaeology (1), Archaeophytes (1), assemblage (1), behavior (1), Beneficial insects (1), beta diversity (1), biological invasions (1), black cottonwood (1), Bronze Age (1), Brussels (1), buffer strip (1), butterfly gardening (1), California (1), California Central Valley (1), California Floristic Province (1), Calluna vulgaris (1), cereal ecosystem flora (1), climate (1), Colonisation (1), Colosseum (1), community composition (1), competition (1), concentration (1), crop biodiversity (1), crop type (1), defense mechanisms (1), detrended correspondence analysis (1), diet (1), dispersal (1), disturbance (1), diversity (1), Dry grassland (1), Ecological succession (1), Elytrigia repens (1), Environmental quality indicator (1), Eriocaulaceae (1), Eriocaulon buergerianum (1), Eustoma russellianum (1), eustomorusside (1), eustomoside (1), eustoside (1), exotic (1), farmland biodiversity (1), Flavonoid (1), Flood dynamics (1), Flood-plain (1), Floodplain meadows (1), Floral analysis (1), fossil (1), Gentianaceae (1), growth (1), habitat creation (1), Habitat fragmentation (1), herbicides (1), Historical surveys (1), host plant switching (1), Human impact (1), Indicator (1), initial floristic composition (1), interactions (1), introduced species (1), invasive plants (1), Iridoid glucosides (1), Iron Age (1), Kickxia abhaica (1), land abandonment (1), land use (1), landscape (1), larvae (1), Life-forms (1), Medieval (1), Mexico (1), mortality (1), Mosaic (1), Mosaic of herbaceous communities (1), multivariate analyses (1), multivariate statistics (1), Naphthopyranone (1), native (1), Naturalized plants (1), Neolithic (1), neophyte (1), neophytes (1), oilseed rape (1), oviposition (1), partial canonical correspondence analysis (1), Periodicity types (1), phytogeography (1), plant biochemistry (1), Plant ecology (1), Plant functional group (1), plant physiology (1), plant taxonomy (1), precipitation (1), predation (1), pyrite (1), rare weed species (1), Recruitment limitation (1), relay floristics (1), Restoration (1), restoration ecology (1), Rhine (1), riparian plant communities (1), River corridor plant species (1), river regulation (1), Roman (1), Rome (1), Ruderal flora (1), Sacramento River (1), Scrophulariaceae (1), secoiridoid glucosides (1), Seed bank (1), seed banks (1), Seed dispersal (1), Seed dispersal types (1), Seed rain (1), sequestration (1), Small mammals (1), soil acidification (1), spatial pattern (1), Species conservation (1), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) (1), Steppe (1), streamflow (1), succession (1), temporal gradient (1), Tillage systems (1), trend surface analysis (1), understory (1), Urban biodiversity (1), urban ecology (1), urbanization (1), Vegetation (1), Weed community (1), Weed control (1), weed species (1), Weed vegetation (1), wheat (1), Wisskirchen & Haeupler (1998) (1), Xanthone (1)


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


weed (77.95), boundary (5.13), medicinal (2.15), ornamental (2.12), fruit (1.80), poison (1.47), timber (1.11), starch (0.82), soil amelioration (0.77), sweetener (0.48)…..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Nobis A, Żmihorski M and Kotowska D (2016) Linking the diversity of native flora to land cover heterogeneity and plant invasions in a river valley. Biological Conservation 203, 17-24.

Ogutcen E and Vamosi JC (2016) A phylogenetic study of the tribe Antirrhineae: Genome duplications and long-distance dispersals from the Old World to the New World. Am. J. Botany 103, 1071-1081.

Picard M, Chevalier R, Barrier R, Boscardin Y and Baltzinger C (2016) Functional traits of seeds dispersed through endozoochory by native forest ungulates. Journal of Vegetation Science 27, 987-998.

Wolf KM and Young TP (2016) Summer water in a restored native grassland flushes annual grass seed bank but fails to increase native perennial cover. Ecosphere 7, n/a-n/a.

Yousefi N, Zarre S and Heubl G (2016) Molecular phylogeny of the mainly Mediterranean genera Chaenorhinum, Kickxia and Nanorrhinum (Plantaginaceae, tribe Antirrhineae), with focus on taxa in the Flora Iranica region. Nordic Journal of Botany 34, 455-463.

Nowak A, Nowak S, Nobis M and Nobis A (2015) Crop type and altitude are the main drivers of species composition of arable weed vegetation in Tajikistan. Weed Research 55, 525-536.

Ramesh K (2015) Chapter Four - Weed Problems, Ecology, and Management Options in Conservation Agriculture: Issues and Perspectives. In Advances in Agronomy (Ed.^(Eds Donald LS) pp. 251-303. (Academic Press).

Steffani B (2014) Äcker und Schutz der Ackerbegleitflora. In Handbuch Naturschutz und Landschaftspflege (Ed.^(Eds  pp. (Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA).

Tuttolomondo T, Licata M, Leto C, Savo V, Bonsangue G, Letizia Gargano M, Venturella G and La Bella S (2014) Ethnobotanical investigation on wild medicinal plants in the Monti Sicani Regional Park (Sicily, Italy). Journal of Ethnopharmacology 153, 568-586.

Ernoult A, Vialatte A, Butet A, Michel N, Rantier Y, Jambon O and Burel F (2013) Grassy strips in their landscape context, their role as new habitat for biodiversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 166, 15-27.

José-María L, Armengot L, Chamorro L and Xavier Sans F (2013) The conservation of arable weeds at crop edges of barley fields in northeast Spain. Annals of Applied Biology 163, 47-55.


Storkey J, Meyer S, Still KS and Leuschner C (2012) The impact of agricultural intensification and land-use change on the European arable flora. Proc R Soc B 279, 1421-1429.



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Kickxia elatine: 53; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Storkey J, Meyer S, Still KS and Leuschner C (2012) The impact of agricultural intensification and land-use change on the European arable flora. Proc R Soc B 279, 1421-1429.

Cline SP and McAllister LS (2011) Plant succession after hydrologic disturbance: inferences from contemporary vegetation on a chronosequence of bars, Willamette River, Oregon, USA. River Research and Applications, n/a-n/a.

Hanley ME, Franco M, et al. (2011) Increased bumblebee abundance along the margins of a mass flowering crop: evidence for pollinator spill-over. Oikos, no-no.

McClain CD, Holl KD and Wood DM (2011) Successional Models as Guides for Restoration of Riparian Forest Understory. Restoration Ecology 19, 280-289.

Malikova L, Smilauer P and Klimesova J (2010) Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species. Ann. Bot. 105, 905-912.

Potts GR, Ewald JA and Aebischer NJ (2010) Long-term changes in the flora of the cereal ecosystem on the Sussex Downs, England, focusing on the years 1968–2005. Journal of Applied Ecology 47, 215-226.

Botham MS, Rothery P, Hulme PE, Hill MO, Preston CD and Roy DB (2009) Do urban areas act as foci for the spread of alien plant species? An assessment of temporal trends in the UK. Diversity and Distributions 15, 338-345.

Brun C (2009) Biodiversity changes in highly anthropogenic environments (cultivated and ruderal) since the Neolithic in eastern France. The Holocene 19, 861-871.

Marshall EJP (2009) The impact of landscape structure and sown grass margin strips on weed assemblages in arable crops and their boundaries. Weed Research 49, 107-115.

ŠIlc U, VrbniČAnin S, BoŽIĆ D, ČArni A and StevanoviĆ ZD (2009) Weed vegetation in the north-western Balkans: diversity and species composition. Weed Research 49, 602-612.

Van Looy K and Meire P (2009) A conservation paradox for riparian habitats and river corridor species. Journal for Nature Conservation 17, 33-46.

Fang J-J, Ye G, Chen W-L and Zhao W-M (2008) Antibacterial phenolic components from Eriocaulon buergerianum. Phytochemistry 69, 1279-1286.

Al-Rehaily AJ, Abdel-Kader MS, Ahmad MS and Mossa JS (2006) Iridoid glucosides from Kickxia abhaica D.A. Sutton from Scrophulariaceae. Phytochemistry 67, 429-432.

Buisson E, Dutoit T, Torre F, Römermann C and Poschlod P (2006) The implications of seed rain and seed bank patterns for plant succession at the edges of abandoned fields in Mediterranean landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 115, 6-14.

Preston CD, Pearman DA and Hall AR (2004) Archaeophytes in Britain. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 145, 257-294.

Villaseñor JL and J. Espinosa-Garcia F (2004) The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions 10, 113-123.

B G (2003) Development and control of weeds in arable farming systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 98, 247-254.

Caneva G, Pacini A, Celesti Grapow L and Ceschin S (2003) The Colosseum’s use and state of abandonment as analysed through its flora. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation 51, 211-219.

Graves SD and Shapiro AM (2003) Exotics as host plants of the California butterfly fauna. Biological Conservation 110, 413-433.

Harald A (2003) Suitability of arable weeds as indicator organisms to evaluate species conservation effects of management in agricultural ecosystems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 98, 201-211.

McCutchan JH, Lewis WM, Kendall C and McGrath CC (2003) Variation in trophic shift for stable isotope ratios of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Oikos 102, 378-390.

Shapiro AM (2002) The Californian urban butterfly fauna is dependent on alien plants. Diversity and Distributions 8, 31-40.

Strykstra RJ, Bekker RM and Van Andel J (2002) Dispersal and life span spectra in plant communities: a key to safe site dynamics, species coexistence and conservation. Ecography 25, 145-160.

Hölzel N and Otte A (2001) The impact of flooding regime on the soil seed bank of flood-meadows. Journal of Vegetation Science 12, 209-218.

Sandrine G (2001) Temporal analysis of the Brussels flora as indicator for changing environmental quality. Landscape and Urban Planning 52, 203-224.

Ghebrehiwet M (2000) Taxonomy, phylogeny and biogeography of Kickxia and Nanorrhinum (Scrophulariaceae). Nordic Journal of Botany 20, 655-690.

Sutcliffe OL and Kay QON (2000) Changes in the arable flora of central southern England since the 1960s. Biological Conservation 93, 1-8.

Dunsford SJ, Free AJ and Davy AJ (1998) Acidifying peat as an aid to the reconstruction of lowland heath on arable soil: a field experiment. Journal of Applied Ecology 35, 660-672.

Camara MD (1997) Predator responses to sequestered plant toxins in buckeye caterpillars: are tritrophic interactions locally variable? Journal of chemical ecology. 23, 2093-2106.

Camara MD (1997) A recent host range expansion in Junonia coenia Hubner (Nymphalidae): oviposition preference, survival, growth, and chemical defense. Evolution. 51, 873-884.

Le Coeur D, Baudry J and Burel F (1997) Field margins plant assemblages: variation partitioning between local and landscape factors. Landscape and Urban Planning 37, 57-71.

Zanin G, Otto S, Riello L and Borin M (1997) Ecological interpretation of weed flora dynamics under different tillage systems. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 66, 177-188.

Berti A and Sattin M (1996) Effect of weed position on yield loss in soyabean and a comparison between relative weed cover and other regression models. Weed Research 36, 249-258.

Handjieva N, Tersieva L, Popov S and Evstatieva L (1995) Two iridoid glucosides, 5-O-Menthiafoloylkickxioside and kickxin, from Kickxia Dum. species. Phytochemistry 39, 925-927.

Dessaint F and Caussanel JP (1994) Trend surface analysis: a simple tool for modelling spatial patterns of weeds. Crop Protection 13, 433-438.

Husseini NE and Zareh M (1994) Systematic studies of Scrophulariaceae in Egypt I. Linaria MILL., and Kickxia DUMORT. Feddes Repertorium 105, 317-329.

Marshall EJP and Arnold GM (1994) Weed seed banks in arable fields under contrasting pesticide regimes. Annals of Applied Biology 125, 349-360.

Gibson CWD and Brown VK (1991) The nature and rate of development of calcareous grassland in Southern Britain. Biological Conservation 58, 297-316.

Harley JL and Harley EL (1987) A CHECK-LIST OF MYCORRHIZA IN THE BRITISH FLORA*. New Phytologist 105, 1-102.

Preston CD and Whitehouse HLK (1986) The habitat of Lythrum hyssopifolia L. in cambridgeshire, its only surviving English locality. Biological Conservation 35, 41-62.

Uesato S, Hashimoto T and Inouye H (1979) Three new secoiridoid glucosides from Eustoma russellianum. Phytochemistry 18, 1981-1986.

Toth L, Csordas I and Papay V (1978) Chemotaxonomical proofs concerning the classification of Kickxia elatine (L.) Dum. and Kickxia spuria (L.) Dum. Acta botanica, 2.

Toth L, Csordas I and Papay V (1978) Chemical analysis of Kickxia elatine (L.) Dum. A Kickxia elatine (L.) Dum. kemiai vizsgalata. Herba Hungarica 17, 1.

Chancellor RJ (1977) A preliminary survey of arable weeds in Britain. Weed Research 17, 283-287.

Jage H (1973) Das Centunculo-Anthocerotetum auf Äckern des mitteldeutschen Altpleistozängebietes Mit 3 Tabellen. Feddes Repertorium 83, 591-612.

Voliotis D (1973) Contribution to the Knowledge of the Greek Flora: New Taxa of the Mountainous Region Cholomon Greek Macedonia. Feddes Repertorium 84, 327-328.

Gutte P (1972) Ruderalpflanzengesellschaften West -und Mittelsachsens Mit 14 Abbildungen und 34 Tabellen. Feddes Repertorium 83, 11-122.

Schubert R and Mahn E-G (1969) Übersicht über die Ackerunkrautgesellschaften Mitteldeuschlands. Feddes Repertorium 80, 133-304.

Hilbig W (1967) Die Ackerunkrautgesellschaften Thüringens. Feddes Repertorium 76, 83-192.


Hering EM (1962) Neue Blattminen-Studien II. (Col., Dipt., Lep.). Deutsche Entomologische Zeitschrift 9, 30-65.

Wall ME, Garvin JW, Willaman JJ, Jones Q and Schubert BG (1961) Steroidal sapogenins LX. Survey of plants for steroidal sapogenins and other constituents. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 50, 1001-1034.

Bruun HG (1937) GENETICAL NOTES ON LINARIA, I—II. Hereditas 22, 395-400.

Ernoult A, Vialatte A, Butet A, Michel N, Rantier Y, Jambon O and Burel Fo Grassy strips in their landscape context, their role as new habitat for biodiversity. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment.

Lavorel S, Touzard B, Lebreton J-D and Clément B Identifying functional groups for response to disturbance in an abandoned pasture. Acta Oecologica 19, 227-240.

Malikova L, Smilauer P and Klimesova J Occurrence of adventitious sprouting in short-lived monocarpic herbs: a field study of 22 weedy species. Ann. Bot. 105, 905-912.


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