Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Koelreuteria elegans



This species is usually known as:

Koelreuteria elegans, Koelreuteria elegans subsp. formosana


This species has no synonyms in The Plant List


Common names:

Flamegold, Taiwanese Rain Tree



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Koelreuteria elegans: 22]



Popularity of Koelreuteria elegans over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Koelreuteria elegans (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Koelreuteria elegans as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 139]


Koelreuteria (4), koelreuteria elegans (3), Cardiospermum (2), contemporary evolution (2), genetic architecture (2), host races (2), invasive species (2), Jadera haematoloma (2), morphs (2), rapid evolution (2), soapberry bug (2), Urban ecology (2), wing polymorphism (2), adaptation (1), adaptive radiation (1), adaptive shift (1), Alectryon (1), altitude (1), Ascomycota (1), Atalaya (1), beak length (1), biogeography (1), biological control (1), biological development (1), body size (1), cardiospermum corindum (1), chain reaction (1), chromosome numbers (1), Citrate synthase (1), colonization (1), Compact city (1), Complex societies (1), conservation (1), diet breadth (1), EEA (1), egg size (1), evolution (1), exotic species (1), fecundity (1), flight (1), flight muscles (1), flight polymorphisms (1), flightlessness (1), Florida (1), fluorochromes (1), fungal anatomy (1), Gene-culture coevolution (1), genetic variation (1), geographical distribution (1), Giemsa C-banding (1), growth regulators (1), habitat transition (1), Hexokinase (1), Hibiscus rosa-sinensis (1), HOAD (1), host plants (1), host range (1), Human evolution (1), Hybrid park (1), Ilex cornuta (1), insect migration (1), insect-plant interactions (1), interphase nuclei (1), invasion (1), invasional meltdown (1), juvenile hormone (1), karyosystematics (1), Leptocoris (1), life cycle (organisms) (1), life histories (1), life history (1), Ligustrum japonicum (1), limestone (1), local adaptation (1), mangrove (1), maternal effects (1), metapopulation (1), mouthparts (1), Neolithic agriculture (1), Neolithic urbanization (1), new geographic records (1), nonindigenous species (1), panbiogeography (1), phenology (1), phenotypic plasticity (1), phytotoxicity (1), Plague (1), plant pathogenic fungi (1), plant–insect interactions (1), Podocarpus macrophyllus (1), polymorphism (1), Precision urban forestry (1), predation (1), preference (1), Pyruvate kinase (1), races (1), rating scales (1), reverse evolution selection (1), Rhopalidae (1), seed development (1), seed predation (1), seed productivity (1), size (1), soapberry bugs (1), Stator limbatus (1), subsidence (1), Taipei (1), Taiwan (1), taxonomy (1), tectonics (1), trophic apparatus (1), ultrastructure (1), uplift (1), Urban biodiversity (1), Urban flora (1), Urban forest (1), Urban green space (1), Urban nature conservation (1), Urban tree communities (1), Violence (1), wing length (1), Wing polymorphic (1), wings (1)


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


honey (28.50), fruit (24.02), ornamental (19.68), medicinal (3.66), genetics (3.44), poison (2.65), weed (2.52), starch (1.21), cereal (0.85), nutraceutical (0.84)…..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Avalos AA, Lattar EC, Galati BG and Ferrucci MS (2017) Nectary structure and ultrastructure in two floral morphs of Koelreuteria elegans subsp. formosana (Sapindaceae). Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 226, 29-37.

Forbes AA, Devine SN, Hippee AC, Tvedte ES, Ward AKG, Widmayer HA and Wilson CJ (2017) Revisiting the particular role of host shifts in initiating insect speciation. Evolution, n/a-n/a.

Cenzer ML (2016) Adaptation to an invasive host is driving the loss of a native ecotype. Evolution 70, 2296-2307.

Pham VT, Herrero M and Hormaza JI (2016) Fruiting pattern in longan, Dimocarpus longan: from pollination to aril development. Annals of Applied Biology 169, 357-368.

Tzean Y, Shu P-Y, Liou R-F and Tzean S-S (2016) Development of oligonucleotide microarrays for simultaneous multi-species identification of Phellinus tree-pathogenic fungi. Microbial Biotechnology 9, 235-244.

Coulleri JP, Urdampilleta JD and Ferrucci MS (2014) Genome size evolution in Sapindaceae at subfamily level: a case study of independence in relation to karyological and palynological traits. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 174, 589-600.

Tan W-H, Liu T-H, Lin YK and Hsu Y-F (2014) Restoration of an endangered plant, Hygrophila pogonocalyx, leads to an adaptive host shift of the chocolate pansy (Junonia iphita iphita). Zoology 117, 237-244.

Yu Y and Andres JA (2014) Genetic Architecture of Contemporary Adaptation to Biotic Invasions: Quantitative Trait Locus Mapping of Beak Reduction in Soapberry Bugs. g3 4, 255-264.

Heaven D (2013) Stunning seeds: a biological meteor wreathed in flames. New Scientist 217, 24-25.

Wang Q, Manchester SR, Gregor H-J, Shen S and Li Z-y (2013) Fruits of Koelreuteria (Sapindaceae) from the Cenozoic throughout the northern hemisphere: Their ecological, evolutionary, and biogeographic implications. Am. J. Botany 100, 422-449.

Carroll SP and Loye JE (2012) Soapberry Bug (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae: Serinethinae) Native and Introduced Host Plants: Biogeographic Background of Anthropogenic Evolution. Ann Entomol Soc Am 105, 671-684.

Zych AF, Mankin RW, Gillooly JF and Foreman E (2012) Stridulation by Jadera haematoloma (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae): Production Mechanism and Associated Behaviors. Ann Entomol Soc Am 105, 118-127.



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Koelreuteria elegans: 22; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Wang Q, Manchester SR, Gregor H-J, Shen S and Li Z-y (2013) Fruits of Koelreuteria (Sapindaceae) from the Cenozoic throughout the northern hemisphere: Their ecological, evolutionary, and biogeographic implications. Am. J. Botany 100, 422-449.

(2010) Subject Index. In ‘Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior’ (Ed.^(Eds Editors-in-Chief:  Michael DB and Janice M) pp. 703-823. (Academic Press: Oxford).

Dingle H, Carroll SP and Famula TR (2009) Influence of genetic architecture on contemporary local evolution in the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma: artificial selection on beak length. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 22, 2031-2040.

Jim CY and Chen WY (2009) Diversity and distribution of landscape trees in the compact Asian city of Taipei. Applied Geography 29, 577-587.

Carroll SP (2008) Facing change: forms and foundations of contemporary adaptation to biotic invasions. Molecular Ecology 17, 361-372.

Jim CY and Chen WY (2008) Pattern and divergence of tree communities in Taipei’s main urban green spaces. Landscape and Urban Planning 84, 312-323.

Carroll SP and Fox CW (2007) Dissecting the evolutionary impacts of plant invasions: bugs and beetles as native guides. Global Change Biology 13, 1644-1657.

(2006) Corrigendum. Australian Journal of Entomology 45, 185-185.

Heads M (2006) Seed plants of Fiji: an ecological analysis. Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 89, 407-431.

Carroll SP, Loye JE, Dingle H, Mathieson M and Zalucki MP (2005) Ecology of Leptocoris Hahn (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae) soapberry bugs in Australia. Australian Journal of Entomology 44, 344-353.

Urdampilleta JD, Ferrucci MS and Vanzela ALL (2005) Karyotype differentiation between Koelreuteria bipinnata and K. elegans ssp. formosana (Sapindaceae) based on chromosome banding patterns. Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 149, 451-455.

Carroll SP, Dingle H and Famula TR (2003) Rapid appearance of epistasis during adaptive divergence following colonization. Proc R Soc B 270, S80-83.

Carroll SP, Marler M, Winchell R and Dingle H (2003) Evolution of cryptic flight morph and life history differences during host race radiation in the soapberry bug, Jadera haematoloma Herrich-Schaeffer (Hemiptera: Rhopalidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 96, 135-143.

Carol Eunmi L (2002) Evolutionary genetics of invasive species. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17, 386-391.

Howard B (2001) Instant evolution. The influence of the city on human genes: a speculative case. New Ideas in Psychology 19, 203-220.

Maron JL and Vilà M (2001) When do herbivores affect plant invasion? Evidence for the natural enemies and biotic resistance hypotheses. Oikos 95, 361-373.

McClain AM and Manchester SR (2001) Dipteronia (Sapindaceae) from the Tertiary of North America and implications for the phytogeographic history of the Aceroideae. Am. J. Botany 88, 1316-1325.

Simberloff D (2001) Invasion of Introduced Species. In ‘eLS’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd).

Winchell R, Dingle H and Moyes CD (2000) Enzyme profiles in two wing polymorphic soapberry bug populations (Jadera haematoloma: Rhopalidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 46, 1365-1373.

Dingle H and Winchell R (1997) Juvenile hormone as a mediator of plasticity in insect life histories. Archives of Insect Biochemistry and Physiology 35, 359-373.<359::AID-ARCH2>3.0.CO;2-N

Kuo KC (1993) A revision of Bulbouncinula bulbosa: a new powdery mildew record from Taiwan, and its presumed anamorph. Mycotaxon., 46.

McConnell DB, Short DE and Johnson CR (1985) Pesticide phytotoxicity as influenced by growth regulators and an antitranspirant. HortScience. 20, 669-670.

Carroll SP and Dingle H The biology of post-invasion events. Biological Conservation 78, 207-214.

Editors-in-Chief:Â Â Michael DB and Janice M Subject Index. In ‘Encyclopedia of Animal Behavior’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 703-823. (Academic Press: Oxford).


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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct; Wiley Online Library; High Wire; Oxford Journals; USDA National Agricultural Library; for synonyms: The Plant List; for common names:; etc.

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Latest update March 2017 by: ANCW