Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Neatostema apulum



This species is usually known as:

Neatostema apulum


This species has also been known as:

Lithospermum apulum, Lithospermum apulum, Margarospermum apulum, Myosotis apula, Rhytispermum apulum


No common names have been found



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Neatostema apulum: 11]



Popularity of Neatostema apulum over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Neatostema apulum (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Neatostema apulum as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 51]


Dry grassland (2), Seed bank (2), amabiline (1), amabiline-N-oxide (1), antiphage activity (1), Ants (1), Boraginaceae (1), Competitive exclusion (1), Crau (1), diaspore transfer (1), Dispersal (1), Distyly (1), Drylands (1), Ecological restoration (1), Embankment (1), Greece (1), herbaceous ecosystems (1), Heterostyly (1), Hydroseeding (1), Inhibition (1), ITS (1), Local disturbances (1), lycopsamine (1), lycopsamine-N-oxide. (1), medicinal plants (1), Mediterranean (1), Mediterranean community (1), Mosaic of herbaceous communities (1), Neatostema apulum (1), plant material transfer (1), Plant traits (1), pyrrolizidine alkaloids (1), Regional species pool (1), Restoration (1), Restoration ecology (1), Roadcut (1), Secondary succession (1), Seed rain (1), sheep grazing (1), Soil erosion (1), species richness (1), Steppe (1), Stress–productivity gradient (1), Style dimorphism (1), Teruel coalfield (1), Topsoil (1), trnK-matK (1), trnL-F (1), trnLUAA intron (1)


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


revegetation (38.16), boundary (14.97), cereal (13.65), tannin (9.00), ornamental (4.73), breeding (4.04), weed (3.39), medicinal (1.72), timber (1.58), fruit (1.26)…..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Bulot A, Provost E and Dutoit T (2014) A comparison of different soil transfer strategies for restoring a Mediterranean steppe after a pipeline leak (La Crau plain, South-Eastern France). Ecological Engineering 71, 690-702. //

Cohen JI (2014) A phylogenetic analysis of morphological and molecular characters of Boraginaceae: evolutionary relationships, taxonomy, and patterns of character evolution. Cladistics 30, 139-169.

Colegate SM, Gardner DR, Betz JM and Panter KE (2014) Semi-automated Separation of the Epimeric Dehydropyrrolizidine Alkaloids Lycopsamine and Intermedine: Preparation of their N-oxides and NMR Comparison with Diastereoisomeric Rinderine and Echinatine. Phytochemical Analysis 25, 429-438.



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Neatostema apulum: 11; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Coiffait-Gombault C, Buisson E and Dutoit T (2011) Hay Transfer Promotes Establishment of Mediterranean Steppe Vegetation on Soil Disturbed by Pipeline Construction. Restoration Ecology 19, 214-222.

de la Riva EG, Casado MA, Jiménez MD, Mola I, Costa-Tenorio M and Balaguer L (2011) Rates of local colonization and extinction reveal different plant community assembly mechanisms on road verges in central Spain. Journal of Vegetation Science 22, 292-302.

Ferrero V, Arroyo J, Vargas P, Thompson JD and Navarro L (2009) Evolutionary transitions of style polymorphisms in Lithodora (Boraginaceae). Perspectives in Plant Ecology, Evolution and Systematics 11, 111-125.

Moreno-de las Heras M, Nicolau JM and Espigares T (2008) Vegetation succession in reclaimed coal-mining slopes in a Mediterranean-dry environment. Ecological Engineering 34, 168-178.

Buisson E, Dutoit T, Torre F, Römermann C and Poschlod P (2006) The implications of seed rain and seed bank patterns for plant succession at the edges of abandoned fields in Mediterranean landscapes. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 115, 6-14.

Römermann C, Dutoit T, Poschlod P and Buisson E (2005) Influence of former cultivation on the unique Mediterranean steppe of France and consequences for conservation management. Biological Conservation 121, 21-33.

Pugnaire FI and Lazaro R (2000) Seed Bank and Understorey Species Composition in a Semi-arid Environment: The Effect of Shrub Age and Rainfall. Ann. Bot. 86, 807-813.

Delitheos A, Tiligada E, Yannitsaros A and Bazos I (1997) Antiphage activity in extracts of plants growing in Greece. Phytomedicine 4, 117-124.

El-Shazly A, Sarg T, Ateya A, Abdel Aziz E, Witte L and Wink M (1996) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids of Cynoglossum officinale and Cynoglossum amabile (family boraginaceae). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 24, 415-421.

Gómez-Campo C and Herranz-Sanz J (1993) Conservation of Iberian endemic plants: The botanical reserve of La Encantada (Villarrobledo, Albacete, Spain). Biological Conservation 64, 155-160.

Roeder E and Bourauel T (1992) Pyrrolizidine alkaloids from Neatostema apulum. Phytochemistry 31, 3613-3615.


RIRDC Farm Diversity Website:


Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC)
Home Page

RIRDC New and Developing Plant Industries
Home Page

includes publications and project reports

RIRDC New Crop Industries Handbook
530 pages
as pdf download

essential oils, tea tree oil, wildflowers and natives, bioenergy, organic farming

Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct; Wiley Online Library; High Wire; Oxford Journals; USDA National Agricultural Library; for synonyms: The Plant List; for common names:; etc.

All information is included in good faith but this website does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy of any information on these pages, nor does the website accept responsibility for any loss arising from the use of this information.  Views and opinions are those of the authors themselves.  Every effort has been made to respect copyright owners' rights. 

Contact: Webmaster, Australian New Crops Website
Latest update March 2017 by: ANCW