Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Nephroma arcticum

 

 

This species name was not found in The Plant List

 

This species has no synonyms in The Plant List

 

Common names:

Arctic Kidney Lichen, Kusskoak

 

 

Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Nephroma arcticum: 106]

 

 

Popularity of Nephroma arcticum over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Nephroma arcticum (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Nephroma arcticum as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

Keywords

[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 547]

 

Lichens (19), Lobaria pulmonaria (7), Nephroma arcticum (6), Nostoc (6), Peltigera aphthosa (6), Stictic acid (6), Ammonium (5), Climate change (5), epiphytes (5), nitrogen (5), Secondary compounds (5), Sweden (5), symbiosis (5), Biodiversity (4), CBSC (4), indicator species (4), Lichen (4), symbionts (4), Temperature (4), altitude (3), Anthraquinones (3), Biomonitoring (3), Cochlodina <ARROW laminata (3), Evernia prunastri (3), Flora (3), FV/FM (3), Gastropoda (3), herbivory (3), Lichenized fungi (3), nonparametric multiplicative regression (3), Orophytes (3), Peltigera (3), Platismatia glauca (3), Scotland (3), Usnic acid (3), Vascular plants (3), Xanthoria aureola (3), Alectoria sarmentosa (2), Alpes (2), Alps (2), Ammonia (2), Artificial regeneration (2), Ascomycota (2), Bioindication (2), Carbon (2), Cetraria nivalis (2), chlorophyll (2), Cryptogams (2), Cyanobacteria (2), Degelia spp (2), Eutrophication (2), Flore (2), Forest management (2), Gastropods (2), Global change (2), Grazing damage (2), Green-tree retention (2), growth (2), growth rate (2), Habitat quality (2), Heavy metal tolerance (2), Hemispherical photography (2), Herbivore defence (2), Hyper spectral imaging spectroscopy (2), Lecanorales (2), Lichen compound (2), Lichen compounds (2), Lichen–invertebrate interactions (2), Lobaria amplissima (2), Lobaria scrobiculata (2), Melanins (2), Nature-based touDOWN>rism (2), Neural network (2), Nitrate (2), nitrogen content (2), nitrogen deposition (2), nitrogen fixation (2), Nitrogen tolerance (2), Nitrogen uptake (2), Norway (2), nucleotide sequences (2), nutrient availability (2), phosphorus (2), photosynthesis (2), photosystem II (2), Receiver operating characteristics curve (2), Recreational activity (2), Red-listed species (2), Relative growth rate (2), Shade-sun gradient (2), Soil pH (2), Soil water content (2), solar radiation (2), Soredia (2), Species composition (2)…..

 

[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]

 

boundary (44.18), bioindicator (30.21), model (12.80), timber (2.04), shade (1.48), medicinal (1.47), green manure (1.16), weed (0.81), fruit (0.69), soil amelioration (0.54)…..

 

[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]

 

 

Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]

 

Coyle JR (2017) Intraspecific variation in epiphyte functional traits reveals limited effects of microclimate on community assembly in temperate deciduous oak canopies. Oikos 126, 111-120. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/oik.03239

Armstrong RA (2016) LICHENOMETRIC DATING (LICHENOMETRY) AND THE BIOLOGY OF THE LICHEN GENUS RHIZOCARPON: CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS. Geografiska Annaler: Series A, Physical Geography 98, 183-206. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/geoa.12130

Asplund J and Wardle DA (2016) How lichens impact on terrestrial community and ecosystem properties. Biological Reviews, n/a-n/a. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/brv.12305

Boddy L (2016) Chapter 9 - Interactions with Humans and Other Animals. In ‘The Fungi (Third Edition)’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 293-336. (Academic Press: Boston). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123820341000098

Hill R, Saetnan ER, Scullion J, Gwynn-Jones D, Ostle N and Edwards A (2016) Temporal and spatial influences incur reconfiguration of Arctic heathland soil bacterial community structure. Environmental Microbiology 18, 1942-1953. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13017

Alam MA, Gauslaa Y and Solhaug KA (2015) Soluble carbohydrates and relative growth rates in chloro-, cyano- and cephalolichens: effects of temperature and nocturnal hydration. New Phytologist 208, 750-762. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.13484

Bokhorst S, Asplund J, Kardol P and Wardle DA (2015) Lichen physiological traits and growth forms affect communities of associated invertebrates. Ecology 96, 2394-2407. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/14-1030.1

Bokhorst S, Phoenix GK, Berg MP, Callaghan TV, Kirby-Lambert C and Bjerke JW (2015) Climatic and biotic extreme events moderate long-term responses of above- and belowground sub-Arctic heathland communities to climate change. Global Change Biology 21, 4063-4075. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13007

Burkin AA and Kononenko GP (2015) Metabolites of toxigenic fungi in lichens of genera Nephroma, Peltigera, Umbilicaria, and Xanthoria. Biology bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 42, 486-492. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1062359015060023

Darnajoux R, Lutzoni F, Miadlikowska J and Bellenger J-P (2015) Determination of elemental baseline using peltigeralean lichens from Northeastern Canada (Québec): Initial data collection for long term monitoring of the impact of global climate change on boreal and subarctic area in Canada. Science of The Total Environment 533, 1-7. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969715005628

Dohi T, Ohmura Y, Kashiwadani H, Fujiwara K, Sakamoto Y and Iijima K (2015) Radiocaesium activity concentrations in parmelioid lichens within a 60 km radius of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant. Journal of Environmental Radioactivity 146, 125-133. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0265931X15001319

Hagemann U and Moroni MT (2015) Moss and lichen decomposition in old-growth and harvested high-boreal forests estimated using the litterbag and minicontainer methods. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 87, 10-24. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071715001443

Kononenko GP and Burkin AA (2015) Distribution of mycotoxins and usnic acid in the thalli of epigeous lichens. Biology bulletin of the Russian Academy of Sciences. 42, 213-219. http://dx.doi.org/10.1134/S1062359015030036

Köster E, Köster K, Berninger F and Pumpanen J (2015) Carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from podzols of a fire chronosequence in the boreal forests in Värriö, Finnish Lapland. Geoderma Regional 5, 181-187. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2352009415300031

Leavitt SD, Kraichak E, Nelsen MP, Altermann S, Divakar PK, Alors D, Esslinger TL, Crespo A and Lumbsch T (2015) Fungal specificity and selectivity for algae play a major role in determining lichen partnerships across diverse ecogeographic regions in the lichen-forming family Parmeliaceae (Ascomycota). Molecular Ecology 24, 3779-3797. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/mec.13271

Nelson PR, McCune B, Roland C and Stehn S (2015) Non-parametric methods reveal non-linear functional trait variation of lichens along environmental and fire age gradients. Journal of Vegetation Science 26, 848-865. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvs.12286

Ylänne H, Stark S and Tolvanen A (2015) Vegetation shift from deciduous to evergreen dwarf shrubs in response to selective herbivory offsets carbon losses: evidence from 19 years of warming and simulated herbivory in the subarctic tundra. Global Change Biology 21, 3696-3711. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/gcb.12964

Asplund J and Wardle DA (2014) Within-species variability is the main driver of community-level responses of traits of epiphytes across a long-term chronosequence. Functional Ecology 28, 1513-1522. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2435.12278

Černajová I and Svoboda D (2014) Lichen compounds of common epiphytic Parmeliaceae species deter gastropods both in laboratory and in Central European temperate forests. Fungal Ecology 11, 8-16. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504814000427

Färber L, Solhaug KA, Esseen P-A, Bilger W and Gauslaa Y (2014) Sunscreening fungal pigments influence the vertical gradient of pendulous lichens in boreal forest canopies. Ecology 95, 1464-1471. http://dx.doi.org/10.1890/13-2319.1

Hekkala A-M, Tarvainen O and Tolvanen A (2014) Dynamics of understory vegetation after restoration of natural characteristics in the boreal forests in Finland. Forest Ecology and Management 330, 55-66. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112714004046

Lang SI, Aerts R, van Logtestijn RSP, Schweikert W, Klahn T, Quested HM, van Hal JR and Cornelissen JHC (2014) Mapping nutrient resorption efficiencies of subarctic cryptogams and seed plants onto the Tree of Life. Ecology and Evolution 4, 2217-2227. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1079

Shrestha G and St Clair LL (2014) Chapter 4 - Lichen Phenolics: Environmental Effects A2 - Watson, Ronald Ross. In ‘Polyphenols in Plants’ (Ed.^(Eds  pp. 53-62. (Academic Press: San Diego). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780123979346000048

Stewart KJ, Grogan P, Coxson DS and Siciliano SD (2014) Topography as a key factor driving atmospheric nitrogen exchanges in arctic terrestrial ecosystems. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 70, 96-112. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0038071713004380

Yousuf S, Choudhary MI and Atta ur R (2014) Chapter 7 - Lichens: Chemistry and Biological Activities. In ‘Studies in Natural Products Chemistry’ (Ed.^(Eds Atta ur R) pp. 223-259. (Elsevier). //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780444634306000072

Asplund J and Wardle DA (2013) The impact of secondary compounds and functional characteristics on lichen palatability and decomposition. Journal of Ecology 101, 689-700. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12075

Bramryd T (2013) Long-term effects of sewage sludge application on the heavy metal concentrations in acid pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) forests in a climatic gradient in Sweden. Forest Ecology and Management 289, 434-444. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378112712005294

Gauslaa Y, Bidussi M, Solhaug KA, Asplund J and Larsson P (2013) Seasonal and spatial variation in carbon based secondary compounds in green algal and cyanobacterial members of the epiphytic lichen genus Lobaria. Phytochemistry 94, 91-98. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S003194221300143X

Nelson PR, Roland C, Macander MJ and McCune B (2013) Detecting continuous lichen abundance for mapping winter caribou forage at landscape spatial scales. Remote Sensing of Environment 137, 43-54. //www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0034425713001806

O’Brien HE, Miadlikowska J and Lutzoni F (2013) Assessing population structure and host specialization in lichenized cyanobacteria. New Phytologist 198, 557-566. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/nph.12165

Bennington CC, Fetcher N, Vavrek MC, Shaver GR, Cummings KJ and McGraw JB (2012) Home site advantage in two long-lived arctic plant species: results from two 30-year reciprocal transplant studies. Journal of Ecology 100, 841-851. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01984.x

Fedrowitz K, Kaasalainen U and Rikkinen J (2012) Geographic mosaic of symbiont selectivity in a genus of epiphytic cyanolichens. Ecology and Evolution 2, 2291-2303. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.343

Gauslaa Y, Coxson DS and Solhaug KA (2012) The paradox of higher light tolerance during desiccation in rare old forest cyanolichens than in more widespread co-occurring chloro- and cephalolichens. New Phytologist 195, 812-822. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04221.x

Larsson P, Solhaug KA and Gauslaa Y (2012) Seasonal partitioning of growth into biomass and area expansion in a cephalolichen and a cyanolichen of the old forest genus Lobaria. New Phytologist 194, 991-1000. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04130.x

 

 

References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Nephroma arcticum: 106; Any undated papers have been included at the end]

 

Bennington CC, Fetcher N, Vavrek MC, Shaver GR, Cummings KJ and McGraw JB (2012) Home site advantage in two long-lived arctic plant species: results from two 30-year reciprocal transplant studies. Journal of Ecology 100, 841-851.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2012.01984.x

Fedrowitz K, Kaasalainen U and Rikkinen J (2012) Geographic mosaic of symbiont selectivity in a genus of epiphytic cyanolichens. Ecology and Evolution 2, 2291-2303.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ece3.343

Gauslaa Y, Coxson DS and Solhaug KA (2012) The paradox of higher light tolerance during desiccation in rare old forest cyanolichens than in more widespread co-occurring chloro- and cephalolichens. New Phytologist 195, 812-822.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04221.x

Larsson P, Solhaug KA and Gauslaa Y (2012) Seasonal partitioning of growth into biomass and area expansion in a cephalolichen and a cyanolichen of the old forest genus Lobaria. New Phytologist 194, 991-1000.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2012.04130.x

Asplund J (2011) Snails avoid the medulla of Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata due to presence of secondary compounds. Fungal Ecology 4, 356-358.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504811000614

Bernhardt EL, Hollingsworth TN and Chapin IIIFS (2011) Fire severity mediates climate-driven shifts in understorey community composition of black spruce stands of interior Alaska. Journal of Vegetation Science 22, 32-44.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-1103.2010.01231.x

Bjerke JW, Bokhorst S, Zielke M, Callaghan TV, Bowles FW and Phoenix GK (2011) Contrasting sensitivity to extreme winter warming events of dominant sub-Arctic heathland bryophyte and lichen species. Journal of Ecology 99, 1481-1488.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2011.01859.x

Ermakov N and Morozova O (2011) Syntaxonomical survey of boreal oligotrophic pine forests in northern Europe and Western Siberia. Applied Vegetation Science 14, 524-536.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1654-109X.2011.01155.x

Johan A (2011) Snails avoid the medulla of Lobaria pulmonaria and L. scrobiculata due to presence of secondary compounds. Fungal Ecology 4, 356-358.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504811000614

Johansson O, Olofsson J, Giesler R and Palmqvist K (2011) Lichen responses to nitrogen and phosphorus additions can be explained by the different symbiont responses. New Phytologist 191, 795-805.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03739.x

Lisewski V and Ellis CJ (2011) Lichen epiphyte abundance controlled by the nested effect of woodland composition along macroclimatic gradients. Fungal Ecology 4, 241-249.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504810000656

Middleton M, Närhi P and Sutinen R (2011) Imaging spectroscopy in soil-water based site suitability assessment for artificial regeneration to Scots pine. ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing 66, 287-297.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0924271610001164

Muggia L, Nelson P, Wheeler T, Yakovchenko LS, Tonsberg T and Spribille T (2011) Convergent evolution of a symbiotic duet: The case of the lichen genus Polychidium (Peltigerales, Ascomycota). Am. J. Botany 98, 1647-1656.  http://www.amjbot.org/cgi/content/abstract/98/10/1647

Nybakken L, Sandvik SM and Klanderud K (2011) Experimental warming had little effect on carbon-based secondary compounds, carbon and nitrogen in selected alpine plants and lichens. Environmental and Experimental Botany 72, 368-376.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098847211001031

Vatne S, Asplund J and Gauslaa Y (2011) Contents of carbon based defence compounds in the old forest lichen Lobaria pulmonaria vary along environmental gradients. Fungal Ecology 4, 350-355.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1754504811000407

Asplund J, Larsson P, Vatne S and Gauslaa Y (2010) Gastropod grazing shapes the vertical distribution of epiphytic lichens in forest canopies. Journal of Ecology 98, 218-225.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01584.x

Johansson O, Nordin A, Olofsson J and Palmqvist K (2010) Responses of epiphytic lichens to an experimental whole-tree nitrogen-deposition gradient. New Phytologist 188, 1075-1084.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2010.03426.x

Jonsson Čabrajič AV, Moen J and Palmqvist K (2010) Predicting growth of mat-forming lichens on a landscape scale – comparing models with different complexities. Ecography 33, 949-960.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0587.2009.06079.x

LidÉN M, Jonsson ČAbrajiĆ AV, Ottosson-LÖFvenius M, Palmqvist K and Lundmark T (2010) Species-specific activation time-lags can explain habitat restrictions in hydrophilic lichens. Plant, Cell & Environment 33, 851-862.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3040.2009.02111.x

Markus H (2010) Ammonium and nitrate tolerance in lichens. Environmental Pollution 158, 1127-1133.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0269749109006447

Munzi S, Pisani T, Paoli L and Loppi S (2010) Time- and dose-dependency of the effects of nitrogen pollution on lichens. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 73, 1785-1788.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651310001922

Arnold AE, Miadlikowska J, Higgins KL, Sarvate SD, Gugger P, Way A, Hofstetter V, Kauff F and Lutzoni F (2009) A Phylogenetic Estimation of Trophic Transition Networks for Ascomycetous Fungi: Are Lichens Cradles of Symbiotrophic Fungal Diversification? Syst Biol 58, 283-297.  http://sysbio.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/58/3/283

Ellis CJ, Yahr R and Coppins BJ (2009) Local extent of old-growth woodland modifies epiphyte response to climate change. Journal of Biogeography 36, 302-313.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2699.2008.01989.x

Gauslaa Y, Palmqvist K, Solhaug KA, Hilmo O, Holien H, Nybakken L and Ohlson M (2009) Size-dependent growth of two old-growth associated macrolichen species. New Phytologist 181, 683-692.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-8137.2008.02690.x

Lang SI, Cornelissen JHC, Klahn T, Van Logtestijn RSP, Broekman R, Schweikert W and Aerts R (2009) An experimental comparison of chemical traits and litter decomposition rates in a diverse range of subarctic bryophyte, lichen and vascular plant species. Journal of Ecology 97, 886-900.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2745.2009.01538.x

Larsson P, VeCeRovÁ Kn, CempÍrkovÁ H, Solhaug KAr and Gauslaa Y (2009) Does UV-B influence biomass growth in lichens deficient in sun-screening pigments? Environmental and Experimental Botany 67, 215-221.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098847209000768

Larsson P, Večeřová K, Cempírková H, Solhaug KA and Gauslaa Y (2009) Does UV-B influence biomass growth in lichens deficient in sun-screening pigments? Environmental and Experimental Botany 67, 215-221.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0098847209000768

Munzi S, Pirintsos SA and Loppi S (2009) Chlorophyll degradation and inhibition of polyamine biosynthesis in the lichen Xanthoria parietina under nitrogen stress. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72, 281-285.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651308001280

Munzi S, Pisani T and Loppi S (2009) The integrity of lichen cell membrane as a suitable parameter for monitoring biological effects of acute nitrogen pollution. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72, 2009-2012.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651309001067

Nybakken L, Johansson O and Palmqvist K (2009) Defensive compound concentration in boreal lichens in response to simulated nitrogen deposition. Global Change Biology 15, 2247-2260.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01853.x

Ozenda P (2009) On the genesis of the plant population in the Alps: New or critical aspects. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332, 1092-1103.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069109002285

Paul O (2009) On the genesis of the plant population in the Alps: New or critical aspects. Comptes Rendus Biologies 332, 1092-1103.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1631069109002285

Perhans K, Appelgren L, Jonsson F, Nordin U, SÖderstrÖm B and Gustafsson L (2009) Retention patches as potential refugia for bryophytes and lichens in managed forest landscapes. Biological Conservation 142, 1125-1133.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320709000603

Perhans K, Appelgren L, Jonsson F, Nordin U, Söderström B and Gustafsson L (2009) Retention patches as potential refugia for bryophytes and lichens in managed forest landscapes. Biological Conservation 142, 1125-1133.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320709000603

Pirintsos SA, Munzi S, Loppi S and Kotzabasis K (2009) Do polyamines alter the sensitivity of lichens to nitrogen stress? Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 72, 1331-1336.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0147651309000372

Solhaug KA, Lind M, Nybakken L and Gauslaa Y (2009) Possible functional roles of cortical depsides and medullary depsidones in the foliose lichen Hypogymnia physodes. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 204, 40-48.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367253008001035

Solhaug KAr, Lind M, Nybakken L and Gauslaa Y (2009) Possible functional roles of cortical depsides and medullary depsidones in the foliose lichen Hypogymnia physodes. Flora - Morphology, Distribution, Functional Ecology of Plants 204, 40-48.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0367253008001035

TÖrn A, Tolvanen A, Norokorpi Y, Tervo R and SiikamÄki P (2009) Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest. Journal of Environmental Management 90, 1427-1434.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479708002533

Törn A, Tolvanen A, Norokorpi Y, Tervo R and Siikamäki P (2009) Comparing the impacts of hiking, skiing and horse riding on trail and vegetation in different types of forest. Journal of Environmental Management 90, 1427-1434.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479708002533

Zhao T, Xu H, He Y, Tai C, Meng H, Zeng F and Xing M (2009) Agricultural non-point nitrogen pollution control function of different vegetation types in riparian wetlands: A case study in the Yellow River wetland in China. Journal of Environmental Sciences 21, 933-939.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1001074208623645

Hauck M, Jurgens S-R, Brinkmann M and Herminghaus S (2008) Surface Hydrophobicity Causes SO2 Tolerance in Lichens. Ann. Bot. 101, 531-539.  http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/101/4/531

Passo A, Stenroos S and Calvelo S (2008) Joergensenia, a new genus to accommodate Psoroma cephalodinum (lichenized Ascomycota). Mycological Research 112, 1465-1474.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0953756208001834

Unal D, Tuney I and Sukatar A (2008) The role of external polyamines on photosynthetic responses, lipid peroxidation, protein and Chlorophyll a content under the UV-A (352&#xa0;nm) stress in Physcia semipinnata. Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology B: Biology 90, 64-68.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1011134407001753

Cornelissen JHC, Lang SI, Soudzilovskaia NA and During HJ (2007) Comparative Cryptogam Ecology: A Review of Bryophyte and Lichen Traits that Drive Biogeochemistry. Ann. Bot. 99, 987-1001.  http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/5/987

Kytoviita MM and Crittenden PD (2007) Growth and Nitrogen Relations in the Mat-forming Lichens Stereocaulon paschale and Cladonia stellaris. Ann. Bot. 100, 1537-1545.  http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/7/1537

Kytoviita M-M and Crittenden PD (2007) Growth and Nitrogen Relations in the Mat-forming Lichens Stereocaulon paschale and Cladonia stellaris. Ann. Bot. 100, 1537-1545.  http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/100/7/1537

Makkonen S, Hurri RSK and Hyvarinen M (2007) Differential Responses of Lichen Symbionts to Enhanced Nitrogen and Phosphorus Availability: An Experiment with Cladina stellaris. Ann. Bot. 99, 877-884.  http://aob.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/99/5/877

McEvoy M, Solhaug KA and Gauslaa Y (2007) Solar radiation screening in usnic acid-containing cortices of the lichen Nephroma arcticum. Symbiosis. 43, 3.

Gaio-Oliveira G, Moen J, Danell Ö and Palmqvist K (2006) Effect of simulated reindeer grazing on the re-growth capacity of mat-forming lichens. Basic and Applied Ecology 7, 109-121.  http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1439179105000873

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Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium http://www.anbg.gov.au/cpbr/databases/apni-search-full.html; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium http://www.ipni.org/index.html; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service http://plants.usda.gov/;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct http://www.sciencedirect.com/; Wiley Online Library http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/advanced/search; High Wire http://highwire.stanford.edu/cgi/search; Oxford Journals http://services.oxfordjournals.org/search.dtl; USDA National Agricultural Library http://agricola.nal.usda.gov/booleancube/booleancube_search_cit.html; for synonyms: The Plant List http://www.theplantlist.org/; for common names: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page; etc.


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