Australian New Crops Info 2016
Supported by the Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation

Listing of Interesting Plants of the World:

Nymphaea capensis



This species is usually known as:

Nymphaea capensis


This species has also been known as:

Nymphaea capensis var. capensis


Common names:

Cape Blue Waterlily, Cape Blue Water Lily



Trends (five databases) 1901-2013:
[Number of papers mentioning Nymphaea capensis: 28]



Popularity of Nymphaea capensis over time
[Left-hand Plot: Plot of numbers of papers mentioning Nymphaea capensis (histogram and left hand axis scale of left-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box); Right-hand Plot: Plot of a proportional micro index, derived from numbers of papers mentioning Nymphaea capensis as a proportion (scaled by multiplying by one million) of the approximate total number of papers available in databases for that year (frequency polygon and left-hand axis scale of right-hand plot) and line of best fit, 1901 to 2013 (equation and % variation accounted for in box)] 

[For larger charts showing the numbers of papers that have mentioned this species over years, select this link; there are links to come back from there]



[Total number of keywords included in the papers that mentioned this species: 95]


Uganda (3), aquatic plants (2), chemical constituents of plants (2), chemical structure (2), derivatives (2), flowers (2), nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (2), nymphaea caerulea (2), pollination (2), spectral analysis (2), angiospermy (1), Anoxia tolerance (1), anthers (1), anthocyanins (1), Antimicrobial activity (1), Apoplastic barrier (1), Apoplastic transport (1), Aquatic macrophytes (1), Australia (1), Biomphalaria pfeifferi (1), BLAST search (1), Cabomba (1), callose (1), carpel (1), character evolution (1), chemotaxonomy (1), color (1), constructed wetlands (1), distribution (1), DNA analysis (1), DNA barcode (1), fecundity (1), field temperatures (1), Flavonol 3-rhamnosides (1), flavonols (1), floral biology (1), flowering (1), Gas flow (1), GC–MS (1), growth (1), growth rate (1), gynoecium (1), habitats (1), hand-pollination (1), Herbal product (1), Holocene (1), homoplasy (1), Kaempferol 3-(2″-acetylrhamnoside) (1), LC–MS (1), life-cycle (1), municipal effluent (1), Myricetin 3-(2″-acetylrhamnoside) (1), nutrients (1), Nymphaea (1), Nymphaa caerulea (1), Nymphaaceae (1), Nymphaeales (1), origin of angiosperms (1), Oxygen shortage (1), Oxygen stress (1), palynology (1), plant morphology (1), pollen flows (1), pollen release (1), pollen tube (1), pollen tubes (1), Pressurised ventilation (1), Quercetin 3-(2″-acetylrhamnoside) (1), Quercetin 3-(3″-acetylrhamnoside) (1), receptor-dependant and receptor-independant sporopollenin (1), South Africa (1), sporoderm development (1), Sporopollenin Acceptor Particles (1), stamens (1), stigma (1), style structure (1), styles (1), Suberized walls (1), substructure (1), Traditional herbal drugs (1), ultrastructure (1), Use validation (1), vegetation history (1), Water lily (1)


[If all keywords are not here (as indicated by .....), they can be accessed from this link; there are links to come back from there]



Most likely scope for crop use/product (%):
[Please note: When there are only a few papers mentioning a species, care should be taken with the interpretation of these crop use/product results; as well, a mention may relate to the use of a species, or the context in which it grows, rather than a product]


psychoactive (86.46), cereal (8.49), wastewater treatment (1.32), aquatic (0.97), oilseed/fat (0.36), timber (0.34), fruit (0.27), poison (0.27), ornamental (0.17), starch (0.15)..


[To see the full list of crop use/product outcomes, from searching abstracts of the papers that have mentioned this species, select this link; details of the analysis process have also been included; there are links to come back from there]



Recent mentions of this species in the literature:
[since 2012, with links to abstracts; The references from 1901-2013 which have been used for the trend, keyword and crop use/product analyses below, are listed below these references]


Lintern A, Leahy PJ, Zawadzki A, Gadd P, Heijnis H, Jacobsen G, Connor S, Deletic A and McCarthy DT (2016) Sediment cores as archives of historical changes in floodplain lake hydrology. Science of The Total Environment 544, 1008-1019.

Povilus RA, Losada JM and Friedman WE (2015) Floral biology and ovule and seed ontogeny of Nymphaea thermarum, a water lily at the brink of extinction with potential as a model system for basal angiosperms. Ann. Bot. 115, 211-226.

Hu J, Wang Z, Zhang L and Sun M-x (2014) The Arabidopsis Exine Formation Defect (EFD) gene is required for primexine patterning and is critical for pollen fertility. New Phytologist 203, 140-154.

Johnston SG, Burton ED, Aaso T and Tuckerman G (2014) Sulfur, iron and carbon cycling following hydrological restoration of acidic freshwater wetlands. Chemical Geology 371, 9-26.

Stroud JL and Collins RN (2014) Improved detection of coastal acid sulfate soil hotspots through biomonitoring of metal(loid) accumulation in water lilies (Nymphaea capensis). Science of The Total Environment 487, 500-505.



References 1901-2013 (and links to abstracts):
[Number of papers mentioning Nymphaea capensis: 28; Any undated papers have been included at the end]


Lora J, Hormaza JI and Herrero M (2010) The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae). Ann. Bot. 105, 221-231.

Williams JH, McNeilage RT, Lettre MT and Taylor ML (2010) Pollen tube growth and the pollen-tube pathway of Nymphaea odorata (Nymphaeaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 162, 581-593.

La-ongsri W, Trisonthi C and Balslev H (2009) A synopsis of Thai Nymphaeaceae. Nordic Journal of Botany 27, 97-114.

Sage TL, Hristova-Sarkovski K, Koehl V, Lyew J, Pontieri V, Bernhardt P, Weston P, Bagha S and Chiu G (2009) Transmitting tissue architecture in basal-relictual angiosperms: Implications for transmitting tissue origins. Am. J. Botany 96, 183-206.

Williams JH (2009) Amborella trichopoda (Amborellaceae) and the evolutionary developmental origins of the angiosperm progamic phase. Am. J. Botany 96, 144-165.

Neumann FH, Stager JC, Scott L, Venter HJT and Weyhenmeyer C (2008) Holocene vegetation and climate records from Lake Sibaya, KwaZulu-Natal (South Africa). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 152, 113-128.

Taylor ML, Gutman BL, Melrose NA, Ingraham AM, Schwartz JA and Osborn JM (2008) Pollen and anther ontogeny in Cabomba caroliniana (Cabombaceae, Nymphaeales). Am. J. Botany 95, 399-413.

Lyew J, Li Z, Liang-Chen Y, Yi-bo L and Sage TL (2007) Pollen tube growth in association with a dry-type stigmatic transmitting tissue and extragynoecial compitum in the basal angiosperm Kadsura longipedunculata (Schisandraceae). Am. J. Botany 94, 1170-1182.

Taylor ML and Osborn JM (2006) Pollen ontogeny in Brasenia (Cabombaceae, Nymphaeales). Am. J. Botany 93, 344-356.

Hristova K, Lam M, Feild T and Sage TL (2005) Transmitting Tissue ECM Distribution and Composition, and Pollen Germinability in Sarcandra glabra and Chloranthus japonicus (Chloranthaceae). Ann. Bot. 96, 779-791.

Bernhardt P, Sage T, Weston P, Azuma H, Lam M, Thien LB and Bruhl J (2003) The Pollination of Trimenia moorei (Trimeniaceae): Floral Volatiles, Insect/Wind Pollen Vectors and Stigmatic Self-incompatibility in a Basal Angiosperm. Ann. Bot. 92, 445-458.

Gabarayeva NI, Grigorjeva VV and Rowley JR (2003) Sporoderm ontogeny in Cabomba aquatica (Cabombaceae). Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology 127, 147-173.

Hamill FA, Apio S, Mubiru NK, Bukenya-Ziraba R, Mosango M, Maganyi OW and Soejarto DD (2003) Traditional herbal drugs of Southern Uganda, II: literature analysis and antimicrobial assays. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 84, 57-78.

Sage TL and Sampson FB (2003) Evidence for Ovarian Self-incompatibility as a Cause of Self-sterility in the Relictual Woody Angiosperm, Pseudowintera axillaris (Winteraceae). Ann. Bot. 91, 807-816.

Fossen T and Andersen OM (1999) Delphinidin 3-galloylgalactosides from blue flowers of Nymphaea caerulea. Phytochemistry. 50, 1185-1188.

Fossen T, Larsen A, Kiremire BT and Andersen OM (1999) Flavonoids from blue flowers of Nymphaea caerulea. Phytochemistry. 51, 1133-1137.

Fossen T, Larsen , Kiremire BT and Andersen M (1999) Flavonoids from blue flowers of Nymphaa caerulea. Phytochemistry 51, 1133-1137.

Margaret G (1997) Nutrient content of wetland plants in constructed wetlands receiving municipal effluent in tropical Australia. Water Science and Technology 35, 135-142.

Alban D B (1996) Casparian band-like structures in the root hypodermis of some aquatic angiosperms. Aquatic Botany 55, 217-225.

Wolfgang Ge (1996) Pressurised ventilation in floating-leaved aquatic macrophytes. Aquatic Botany 54, 137-150.

Orban I and Bouharmont J (1995) Reproductive biology ofNymphaea capensisThunb. var.zanzibariensis(Casp.) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 119, 35-43.

Orban I and Bouharmount J (1995) Reproductive biology of Nymphaea capensis Thunb. var. zanzibariensis (Casp.) Verdc. (Nymphaeaceae). Botanical journal of the Linnean Society. 119, 35-43.

van Bergen PF, Collinson ME, Damst JSS and de Leeuw JW (1994) Chemical and microscopical characterization of inner seed coats of fossil water plants. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 231-239.

van Bergen PF, Goi M, Collinson ME, Barrie PJ, Damst JSS and De Leeuw JW (1994) Chemical and microscopic characterization of outer seed coats of fossil and extant water plants. Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 58, 3823-3844.

Grosse W, Bernhard Bchel H and Tiebel H (1991) Pressurized ventilation in wetland plants. Aquatic Botany 39, 89-98.

Edward L S (1982) Notes on the floral biology of Nymphaea elegans (nymphaeaceae) in Texas. Aquatic Botany 12, 197-200.

C.C A (1977) The influence of temperature on the life-cycle and distribution of Biomphalaria pfeifferi (Krauss, 1948) in South-Eastern Africa. International Journal for Parasitology 7, 335-345.


E.C B-S (1968) Chemotaxonomy of Nuphar lutea (L.) Sm. Phytochemistry 7, 459.

Lora J, Hormaza JI and Herrero M The progamic phase of an early-divergent angiosperm, Annona cherimola (Annonaceae). Ann. Bot. 105, 221-231.

Ogata J, Uchiyama N, Kikura-Hanajiri R and Goda Y DNA sequence analyses of blended herbal products including synthetic cannabinoids as designer drugs. Forensic Science International.


RIRDC Farm Diversity Website:


Rural Industries Research and Development Corporation (RIRDC)
Home Page

RIRDC New and Developing Plant Industries
Home Page

includes publications and project reports

RIRDC New Crop Industries Handbook
530 pages
as pdf download

essential oils, tea tree oil, wildflowers and natives, bioenergy, organic farming

Grateful acknowledgment is made to the following: for plant names: Australian Plant Name Index, Australian National Herbarium; ; The International Plant Names Index, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew/Harvard University Herbaria/Australian National Herbarium; Plants Database, United States Department of Agriculture, National Resources Conservation Service;DJ Mabberley (1997) The Plant Book, Cambridge University Press (Second Edition); JH Wiersma and B Leon (1999) World Economic Plants, CRC Press; RJ Hnatiuk (1990) Census of Australian Vascular Plants, Australian Government Publishing Service; for information: Science Direct; Wiley Online Library; High Wire; Oxford Journals; USDA National Agricultural Library; for synonyms: The Plant List; for common names:; etc.

All information is included in good faith but this website does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy of any information on these pages, nor does the website accept responsibility for any loss arising from the use of this information.  Views and opinions are those of the authors themselves.  Every effort has been made to respect copyright owners' rights. 

Contact: Webmaster, Australian New Crops Website
Latest update March 2017 by: ANCW